Posted in music on December 19, 2011

by Andrew Sacher

Pitchfork Top 50 Albums

Last week, Pitchfork posted their much anticipated top 50 albums of 2011 and their top 100 tracks of 2011. It's no huge surprise that Bon Iver took best album and that M83 took best track with "Midnight City," but some other choices were a little less expected.

PJ Harvey, who was basically unanimously the UK's choice for album of the year (says NME, Uncut, Mojo, The Guardian, and the Mercury Prize, among others) came in at #4, making it her first album of the new millennium to end up on a Pitchfork year-end list. Odd Future's Frank Ocean's Nostaliga, Ultra came in at #35, while the crew's ringleader Tyler, the Creator's Goblin was nowhere to be found (though "Yonkers" was named the 16th best track). The King of Limbs was the first Radiohead album released during Pitchfork's existence that didn't make the year-end list. Wild Flag and SBTRKT both released albums that initially surprised us by not getting "Best New Music" but have both ended up in the top 50. Liturgy's Aesthetica, which didn't end up on Pitchfork's best metal albums, though it was given an honorable mention, where Brandon Stosuy wrote, "In many ways it was the album of the year," came in at #41 on the top 50, the only metal album on the list.

As for the top 100 tracks, as usual, the higher rated tracks were pretty pop-dominated, with Nicki Minaj beating out the bulk of this year's indie rock. Some other odd ones made the list like Britney Spears, Kreayshawn, and Soulja Boy, but there were also some great tracks that went a little overlooked this year like Action Bronson's "Larry Csonka," Cities Aviv's "Coastin'" and Peaking Lights' "All The Sun That Shines" that made the list.

Both lists can be quickly viewed below...

Pitchfork TOp 50 Albums of 2011
50 Youth Lagoon - The Year Of Hibernation
49 Wild Flag - Wild Flag
48 Toro Y Moi - Underneath The Pine
47 Sepalcure - Sepalcure
46 Cults - Cults
45 Kendrick Lamar - Section.80
44 Colin Stetson - New History Warfare Vol. 2: Judges
43 Lykke Li - Wounded Rhymes
41 Liturgy - Aesethetica
40 AraabMuzik - Electronic Dream
39 The War On Drugs - Slave Ambient
38 Sandro Perri - Impossible Spaces
37 Iceage - New Brigade
36 Kate Bush - 50 Words For Snow
35 Frank Ocean - Nostalgia, Ultra.
34 Katy B - On A Mission
33 Fucked Up - David Comes To Life
32 Panda Bear - Tomboy
31 Ty Segall - Goodbye Bread
30 Tim Hecker - Ravedeath, 1972
29 DJ Quik - The Book Of David
28 Cut Copy - Zonoscope
27 Beyoncé - 4
26 The Field - Looping State Of Mind
25 Gang Gang Dance - Eye Contact
24 Julianna Barwick - The Magic Place
23 Bill Callahan - Apocalypse
22 The Caretaker - An Empty Bliss Beyond This World
21 Jay-Z & Kanye West - Watch The Throne
20 Nicolas Jaar - Space Is Only Noise
19 Danny Brown - XXX
18 Atlas Sound - Parallax
17 Clams Casino - Instrumentals
16 Kurt Vile - Smoke Ring For My Halo
15 Fleet Foxes - Helplessness Blues
14 Shabazz Palaces - Black Up
13 EMA - Past Life Martyred Saints
12 James Blake - James Blake
11 St. Vincent - Strange Mercy
10 The Weeknd - House Of Ballons
09 Real Estate - Days
08 Drake - Take Care
07 tUnE-yArDs - w h o k i l l
06 Oneohtrix Point Never - Replica
05 Girls - Father, Son, Holy Ghost
04 PJ Harvey - Let England Shake
03 M83 - Hurry Up, We're Dreaming
02 Destroyer - Kaputt
01 Bon Iver - Bon Iver

Pitchfork Top 100 Tracks of 2011
100. Thundercat - "For Love (I Come Your Friend)"
99. Ill Blu - "Meltdown"
98. Unknown Mortal Orchestra - "Ffunny Ffrends"
97. Fever Ray - "The Wolf"
96. Peaking Lights - "All The Sun That Shines"
95. Kendrick Lamar - "A.D.H.D.
94. Sepalcure - "Pencil Pimp"
93. Wild Flag - "Romance"
92. Jacques Greene - "Another Girl"
91. Thee Oh Sees - "The Dream"
90. Grimes - "Vanessa"
89. SBTRKT - "Wildfire" (Feat . Little Dragon)
88. Cities Aviv - "Coastin'"
87. Zoo Kid - "Out Getting Ribs"
86. Blawan - "Getting Me Down"
85. Junior Boys - "Banana Ripple"
84. Iceage - "You're Blessed"
83. Tiger & Woods - "Gin Nation"
82. John Maus - "Believer"
81. Yuck - "Get Away"
80. Fucked Up - "Queen Of Hearts"
79. Kelly Rowland - "Motivation" (Feat. Lil Wayne)
78. Sandro Perri - "Changes"
77. Cults - "Abducted"
76. Julianna Barwick - "Prizewinning"
75. Washed Out - "Amor Fati"
74. Dum Dum Girls - "Wrong Feels Right"
73. tUnE-yArDs - "Powa"
72. Britney Spears - "Till The World Ends (The Femme Fatale Remix)" (Feat. Nicki Minaj and Ke$ha)
71. The Men - "Bataille"
70. Holy Ghost! - "Jam For Jerry"
69. Neon Indian - "Polish Girl"
68. The Joy Formidable - "Whirring"
67. Rihanna - "We Found Love" (Feat. Calvin Harris)
66. DJ Quik - "Killer Dope"
65. Fleet Foxes - "Grown Ocean"
64. Toro Y Moi - "New Beat"
63. Bon Iver - "Perth"
62. Liturgy - "Generation"
61. Eleanor Friedberger - "My Mistakes"
60. Adele - "Someone Like You"
59. Mr. Muthafuckin' eXquire - "The Last Huzzah! (Remix)" (Feat. Despot, Das Racist, Danny Brown & El-P)
58. PJ Harvey - "The Words That Maketh Murder"
57. The Weeknd - "House Of Balloons"
56. M83 - "Intro" (Feat. Zola Jesus)
55. Destroyer - "Chinatown"
54. Jamie xx/Gil Scott-Heron - "I'll Take Care Of U"
53. Real Estate - "Green Aisles"
52. Action Bronson - "Larry Csonka"
51. Todd Terje - "Snooze 4 Love"
50. Atlas Sound - "Mona Lisa"
49. Katy B - "Broken Record"
48. Kreayshawn - "Gucci Gucci"
47. Battles - "Ice Cream" (Feat. Matias Aguayo)
46. Ty Segall - "Goodbye Bread"
45. Drake - "Headlines"
44. Nicolas Jaar - "Space Is Only Noise If You Can See"
43. Panda Bear - "Last Night At The Jetty"
42. Jay-Z & Kanye West - "Otis"
41. Frank Ocean - "Novacane"
40. Burial - "Street Halo"
39. Shabazz Palaces - "Swerve... the reeping of all that is worthwhile (Noir not withstanding)"
38. Purity Ring - "Ungirthed"
37. ASAP Rocky - "Peso"
36. Jamie xx - "Far Nearer"
35. Charli XCX - "Stay Away"
34. Cut Copy - "Need You Now"
33. AraabMuzik - "Streetz Tonight"
32. Cold Cave - "The Great Pan Is Dead"
31. The Field - "Then It's White"
30. Clams Casino - "Motivation"
29. Jai Paul - "BTSTU"
28. Danny Brown - "Monopoly"
27. The Rapture - "How Deep Is Your Love?"
26. Beyoncé - "1+1"
25. Soulja Boy - "Zan With That Lean"
24. Kurt Vile - "Jesus Fever"
23. Adele - "Rolling In The Deep"
22. Bill Callahan - "Riding For The Feeling"
21. Drake - "Marvins Room"
20. Gang Gang Dance - "Glass Jar"
19. Lana Del Rey - "Video Games"
18. St. Vincent - "Cruel"
17. Oneohtrix Point Never - "Replica"
16. Tyler, The Creator - "Yonkers"
15. The Weeknd - "The Morning"
14. Girls - "Vomit"
13. tUnE-yArDs - "Bizness"
12. Jay-Z & Kanye West - "Niggas In Paris"
11. James Blake - "The Wilhelm Scream"
10. DJ Khaled - "I'm On One" (Feat. Drake, Rick Ross and Lil Wayne)
09. Azealia Banks - "212"
08. Cass McCombs - "County Line"
07. Beyoncé - "Countdown"
06. Destroyer - "Kaputt"
05. Real Estate - "It's Real"
04. Nicki Minaj - "Super Bass"
03. EMA - "California"
02. Bon Iver - "Holocene"
01. M83 - "Midnight City"



Comments (95)

stop, im gonna hurl

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:37 PM

this songs are all really great!!!!

Posted by Peggy | December 19, 2011 5:40 PM

Doesn't anyone like rock n roll anymore?

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:43 PM

That Bon Iver album is so retardedly overrated. It's not anywhere near as good as For Emma, and even that's overrated.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:47 PM

what about the jacuzzi*boys?

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:50 PM

Thank you, 5:43. I thought this was indie rock, not indie chillwave syth bullshit. Its good in small doses but for 2011 its a free pass to p4k stardom.

BTW why does Drake get some sort of indie cred pass?? That shit is terrible.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:51 PM

pitchfork should be hereafter thought of as

thanks for finding a job you love and ruining it by taking cash from the big labels for favorable reviews : )


Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:52 PM

The list is decent. I just don't think it was a particularly strong year for new music.

I really liked The Rosebuds "Loud Planes Fly Low," but since that album didn't appear on anyone's year end lists, I guess it's just a personal preference. I also really liked the new Girl Talk album "All Day," and am surprised it did not make any lists. What do I know?

Posted by Dan | December 19, 2011 5:52 PM

5:51, I agree about Drake. 20 years ago, a Canadian child actor would never have hiphop "street cred", let alone critical or indie cred. But because he's associated with Lil Wayne, somehow he gets a pass.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:54 PM

thank you, 5:51. i thought i was the only one who thought drake is shit.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:55 PM

quite glad King of Limbs didn't make the list - must mean they are still worthwhile :D

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:59 PM

I don't really understand why mainstream hip-hop gets indie cred in general.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 5:59 PM

agree with the bore iver and drake comments. also ema's schtick seems dated. why do people like her in 2011?

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:02 PM

How about nobody puts out a record in 2012. Just as an experiment.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:07 PM


Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:08 PM

At least they did something right by putting Kaputt at #2.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:12 PM

I can't standing Midnight City by M83. It should be number 100 as a punishment for being so over-played.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:16 PM

This list is stupid!

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:17 PM

Kaputt is Exhibit A for everything wrong with this list/Pitchfork.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:20 PM

No mention of Radiohead anywhere on this list? This must be a fake.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:21 PM

Drake fucking sucks.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:22 PM

drake gets a pass because Jamie xx and the weeknd wrote his whole album, and it's really good. sorry that he's popular - I know that conflicts with some of your abilities to appreciate the music.

didn't you ever wonder why the title track (take care feat. Rihanna) sounds EXACTLY like a song by the xx?

also really glad "powa" by tune-yards made it on there. that song is criminally underrated.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:24 PM

Every once in a while a publication such as Pitchfork has to "like" an artist like Drake to show they have some urban interests.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:28 PM

@6:24 Just to clarify, the title track isn't an xx song, it samples I'll Take Care of You from the Gil Scott Heron and Jamie xx album. But also, Drake still sucks.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:35 PM

I'm just glad Nicki Minaj made the cut. Now I have faith in Pitchfork's list-making abilities.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 6:39 PM

took 'em long enough to fogure out what I've known forever-radiohead sucks.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 7:09 PM


Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 7:13 PM

I am not going to complain about PFork's top 50 albums because it never makes much sense. Last year they picked Kanye's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy as the no. 1 album just because they believed the hype around it. It wasn't even his best album!

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 7:26 PM

I usually agree more with Village Voice's Pazz & Jop poll.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 7:44 PM

@6:21- its because Radiohead sucked so bad this year that even Pitchfork finally realized it

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 7:46 PM

I know I'm going to get torn apart for saying this, but "Rolling in the Deep" was legitimately one of the best tracks of 2011. Most played out too, but it is what it is.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 7:47 PM

6:28, true, but there are more than plenty of legit hiphop/R&B artists that can be included. I've listened to Drake, and I don't get it. Nicki Minaj, I get. Weezy, I get. But not Drake.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 7:54 PM

@7:47 - agreed. Rolling in the Deep and All of the Lights are the only good songs of 2011. What a shitty year.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 8:06 PM

there's lots of ad space for sale on pitchfork!

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 8:21 PM

top 5 is 40% accurate

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 9:15 PM

Loutallica number 1 album of the year.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 9:25 PM

@9:25 no you got it wrong Loutallica worst album of all times

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 9:37 PM

Korallreven should be on this: that album was awesome.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 10:19 PM

where have the Smith Westerns been on all these lists? Haven't really seen them on many. Thought all these websites and mags loved them...

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 10:21 PM

2012 is going to kick the shit out of 2011 when it comes to new music. You'll see.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 10:48 PM

This list is proof that the list makers at pitchfork certainly know their way around a hummus platter.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 11:00 PM

I want Pitchfork to come out with a list of the WORST music of the year.

So I can go buy everything on the list.

Pitchfork can suck me raw.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 11:06 PM

10:48, no shit 2011 fucking sucked.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 11:20 PM

wu lyf?
smith westerns?

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 11:46 PM

Would anybody be able to tell the difference between this list and Rolling Stone's and Spin's. Probably not. In fact I would guess theirs has even less cool dad tendencies.

Posted by Anonymous | December 19, 2011 11:53 PM

I dont know Wu-Lyf's music, but read an interview w them on NME and they were like "we are only doing this while were young, and older folks in bands suck" so basically I would like to see Keith Richards choke those little bitches out. They are all image, and I reckon that's what pitchfork bases a lot of their approval on.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 12:14 AM

Rolling stone is absolute rubbish. I wipe my ass with the crap published in that magazine.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 2:17 AM


Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 3:09 AM

all poop.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 3:20 AM

What she order? Fish fillet?

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 4:12 AM

Of all the great metal albums that came out this year, they choose Liturgy. Really?

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 5:28 AM

that shit cray

Posted by i-train | December 20, 2011 7:55 AM


Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 8:44 AM

drake album was good, y'all just can't appreciate someone with mass appeal. same reason you all hated on kanye's cd last year (MBDTF); that shit was essentially written in whole by bon iver but even that wouldn't get you to listen to the album. you really think every single publication puts the same album on their best of lists just to be 'cool' or gain favor with readers? there's a reason why drake's album is on every best of list this year, and why kanye's was on every best of list last year. because they are good fucking albums. i'm sorry that a popular hip-hop artist (let alone 2 of them) managed to release a qualitatively great LP.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 9:29 AM

never heard of this pitchfork

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 9:32 AM

the pj harvey album was god awful. the radiohead album was pretty great. you are all idiots.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 10:15 AM

9:29. I am speaking from the perspective of an old person who has been a music fan since birth. I have no problems with artists that have mass appeal, as long as they exhibit some sort of creativity and bring something fresh/new/interesting. I see that in artists like Kanye, Adele, and Nicki Minaj. I don't see it in Drake. In Drake, I see a Canadian former teen actor from Degrassi who was propped up and packaged by the music industry to sell records, provided with the best producers and collabs (thanks to Weezy). That's just what I see.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 10:17 AM

The Radiohead album really wasn't that great; they've done much better work. I'm a fan, and I'm being honest. I just think a lot of superfans will like anything they put out. If they put out an album of Johnny Greenwood taking a colassal dump for 45 minutes, there are people that would call it genius.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 10:23 AM

Jonny, not Johnny. Just wanted to correct myself before the superfans come out of the woodwork and say "how can you call yourself a fan if you can't spell his name??"

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 10:24 AM

To add to 10:17, Drake's swagger is bigger than his actual rhyming skills. His skills are ok at best. I've been following hiphop since the 80's, and I gotta say that today's hiphop fans are more accepting of mediocre crap than ever. He would have been a one-hit wonder 20 years ago, if that.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 10:36 AM

how can you call yourself a fan if you can't spell his name??

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 11:00 AM

Take Care is barely a pale shadow of MBDTF.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 11:02 AM

While I like a good number of the bands on this list, Colin Stetson seems to be the only person who has actually created something original. He is truly putting out some unique music and I would love to hear how his sound progresses down the line.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 11:43 AM

the strokes?

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 11:50 AM

I'll admit that Take Care doesn't compare at all to MBDTF (which stands for male, black, down to fuck, by the way). But there are some great tracks on there.

I don't get how you can all beat off to The Weeknd and the xx and simultaneously hate on Drake's LP.

I'm just saying you can do better.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 11:58 AM


Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 12:08 PM

Also tracks from: Love Inks, Timber Timbre, Metronomy and Blitzen Trapper.

Comeback worthy: Strokes

Come Wayback worthy: Cars

Posted by drewo | December 20, 2011 12:27 PM

stick a pitchfork in it. it's done.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 12:43 PM

How many of you people are actually still listening to that Strokes album that came out early this year?
How many listened to it all the way through more than 3 times?
Just curious...

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 12:56 PM

The new Strokes album was a huge disappointment.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 12:57 PM

3 good songs were on 'angles' - very disappointing. but 'life is simple in the moonlight' is a good strokes track.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 1:22 PM


Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 1:23 PM

11:58 - If I put out an album (and I have absolutely no musical talent whatsoever), but had people like The Weeknd or the xx producing my tracks, and it ultimately resulted in a decent sounding record, do I deserve acclaim?

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 1:50 PM

1:50 your album would deserve acclaim, but you wouldn't (like N.A.S.A's first album). Still supports the Drake argument.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 2:11 PM

1:50 you are also really, really opinionated in your steadfast belief that Drake has absolutely no musical talent whatsoever. I know he was an actor, but there are hundreds of other musicians with talent and great work who have also acted in the past - it just shows an ambition to be in the entertainment industry, and is completely irrelevant to your skill-level as a musician.

Childish Gambino (Donald Glover from 'Community') released a very decent LP this year, and he's in the same boat.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 2:19 PM

It's so hip to hate drake. My pickup line at Union Pool is that I hate drake. And then, when we go back to my place, we have sex to drake. How i do.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 2:26 PM

I prefer Hostess to Drake. Just sayin'

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 2:43 PM

Donald Glover has skills. And he didn't need Weezy to rep him.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 2:46 PM

where the hell is Wye Oak?

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 3:15 PM

Just an idiot chiming in, but this is the exact reason they put Drake in the top 10. Because nobody would be talking about Shabazz Palaces being the obligatory rap pick in the top 10 if it were picked.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 3:16 PM

316 no it's because Shabazz Palaces are stupid indie crap that literally no one on this entire planet will remember a year, let alone a decade from now. sometimes you have to ask yourself what constitutes good music.

hate it all you want, but mainstream rappers releasing indie-approved albums produced by highly-regarded independent artists (Bon Iver, XX, Weeknd) is the new trend, and it is working for everyone.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 3:23 PM

ha...3:23 = a lamestreamer

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 3:44 PM

3:23. It's not working for me. And Bon Iver is overrated too. He's still being judged on the basis of his first album. It's all hype.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 4:37 PM

The Strokes definitely put out a pretty weak album this year, but as a big fan of them in general I definitely listened to it way more than three times because they're just a band I like. I don't know why it's so cool to stop supporting bands you like when they show any sign of weaker material (goes for Radiohead too).

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 5:11 PM

5:11, you're a fan, you're entitled. But for the majority of folks who are just casual listeners, let's call a spade a spade.. the Strokes and Radiohead delivered weak material this year, compared to their previous work.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 6:26 PM

I don't think Radiohead could possibly release anything in the future that would satisfy 6:28.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 6:42 PM

@344 yea, me listening to drake makes me a 'lamestreamer.' enjoy waking up at 50 and realizing you've been listening to shitty bands your whole life in an effort to cling to a fleeting sense of individuality.

Posted by Anonymous | December 20, 2011 7:01 PM

Mental retardation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Page semi-protected
Mental retardation
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F70-F79
ICD-9 317-319
DiseasesDB 4509
eMedicine med/3095 neuro/605
MeSH D008607

Mental retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. It has historically been defined as an Intelligence Quotient score under 70.[1] Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environment. As a result, a person with a below-average intelligence quotient (BAIQ) may not be considered mentally retarded. Syndromic mental retardation is intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms. Non-syndromic mental retardation refers to intellectual deficits that appear without other abnormalities.

The terms used to describe this condition are subject to a process called the euphemism treadmill.[citation needed] This means that whatever term is chosen for this condition, it eventually becomes perceived as an insult. The terms mental retardation and mentally retarded were invented in the middle of the 20th century to replace the previous set of terms, which were deemed to have become offensive.[citation needed] By the end of the 20th century, these terms themselves have come to be widely seen as disparaging and politically incorrect and in need of replacement.[2] The term intellectual disability or intellectually challenged is now preferred by most advocates in most English-speaking countries. Clinically, however, mental retardation is a subtype of intellectual disability, which is a broader concept and includes intellectual deficits that are too mild to properly qualify as mental retardation, too specific (as in specific learning disability), or acquired later in life, through acquired brain injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like dementia. Intellectual disabilities may appear at any age. Developmental disability is any disability that is due to problems with growth and development. This term encompasses many congenital medical conditions that have no mental or intellectual components, although it, too, is sometimes used as a euphemism for MR.[3] Because of its specificity and lack of confusion with other conditions, mental retardation is still the term most widely used and recommended for use in professional medical settings, such as formal scientific research and health insurance paperwork.[4]

1 Signs and symptoms
2 Cause
3 Diagnosis
3.1 IQ below 70
3.2 Significant limitations in two or more areas of adaptive behavior
3.3 Evidence that the limitations became apparent in childhood
4 Management
5 Epidemiology
6 History of the condition
7 History of the terminology
7.1 United States
7.2 United Kingdom
7.3 Australia
8 Society and culture
9 See also
10 References
11 External links

Signs and symptoms

The signs and symptoms of mental retardation are all behavioral. Most people with mental retardation do not look like they have any type of intellectual disability, especially if the disability is caused by environmental factors such as malnutrition or lead poisoning. The so-called "typical appearance" ascribed to people with mental retardation is only present in a minority of cases, all of which involve syndromic mental retardation.

Children with mental retardation may learn to sit up, to crawl, or to walk later than other children, or they may learn to talk later.[5] Both adults and children with mental retardation may also exhibit some or all of the following characteristics:[5]

Delays in oral language development
Deficits in memory skills
Difficulty learning social rules
Difficulty with problem solving skills
Delays in the development of adaptive behaviors such as self-help or self-care skills
Lack of social inhibitors

Children with mental retardation learn more slowly than a typical child. Children may take longer to learn language, develop social skills, and take care of their personal needs, such as dressing or eating. Learning will take them longer, require more repetition, and skills may need to be adapted to their learning level. Nevertheless, virtually every child is able to learn, develop and become a participating member of the community.

In early childhood, mild mental retardation (IQ 50–69, a cognitive ability about half to two-thirds of standard) may not be obvious, and may not be identified until children begin school.[5] Even when poor academic performance is recognized, it may take expert assessment to distinguish mild mental retardation from learning disability or emotional/behavioral disorders. People with mild MR are capable of learning reading and mathematics skills to approximately the level of a typical child aged 9 to 12.[5] They can learn self-care and practical skills, such as cooking or using the local mass transit system.[5] As individuals with mild mental retardation reach adulthood, many learn to live independently and maintain gainful employment.

Moderate mental retardation (IQ 35–49) is nearly always apparent within the first years of life. Speech delays are particularly common signs of moderate MR.[5] People with moderate mental retardation need considerable supports in school, at home, and in the community in order to participate fully. While their academic potential is limited, they can learn simple health and safety skills and to participate in simple activities.[5] As adults they may live with their parents, in a supportive group home, or even semi-independently with significant supportive services to help them, for example, manage their finances. As adults, they may work in a sheltered workshop.[5]

A person with severe or profound mental retardation will need more intensive support and supervision his or her entire life.[5] They may learn some activities of daily living. Some will require full-time care by an attendant.[5]
Further information: X-linked mental retardation

Among children, the cause is unknown for one-third to one-half of cases.[5] Down syndrome, velocariofacial syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome are the three most common inborn causes.[5] However, doctors have found many other causes. The most common are:

Genetic conditions. Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons. The most prevalent genetic conditions include Down syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Neurofibromatosis, congenital hypothyroidism, Williams syndrome, Phenylketonuria (PKU), and Prader-Willi syndrome. Other genetic conditions include Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13del), Mowat-Wilson syndrome, genetic ciliopathy,[6] and Siderius type X-linked mental retardation (OMIM 300263) as caused by mutations in the PHF8 gene (OMIM 300560).[7][8] In the rarest of cases, abnormalities with the X or Y chromosome may also cause disability. 48, XXXX and 49, XXXXX syndrome affect a small number of girls worldwide, while boys may be affected by 47, XYY, 49, XXXXY, or 49, XYYYY.
Problems during pregnancy. Mental disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly. For example, there may be a problem with the way the fetus' cells divide as it grows. A woman who drinks alcohol (see fetal alcohol syndrome) or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with mental disability.
Problems at birth. If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen, he or she may have developmental disability due to brain damage.
Exposure to certain types of disease or toxins. Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can cause mental disability if medical care is delayed or inadequate. Exposure to poisons like lead or mercury may also affect mental ability.
Iodine deficiency, affecting approximately 2 billion people worldwide, is the leading preventable cause of mental disability in areas of the developing world where iodine deficiency is endemic. Iodine deficiency also causes goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland. More common than full-fledged cretinism, as retardation caused by severe iodine deficiency is called, is mild impairment of intelligence. Certain areas of the world due to natural deficiency and governmental inaction are severely affected. India is the most outstanding, with 500 million suffering from deficiency, 54 million from goiter, and 2 million from cretinism. Among other nations affected by iodine deficiency, China and Kazakhstan have instituted widespread iodization programs, whereas, as of 2006, Russia had not.[9]
Malnutrition is a common cause of reduced intelligence in parts of the world affected by famine, such as Ethiopia.[10]
Absence of the arcuate fasciculus.[11]


According to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV),[12] three criteria must be met for a diagnosis of mental retardation: an IQ below 70, significant limitations in two or more areas of adaptive behavior (as measured by an adaptive behavior rating scale, i.e. communication, self-help skills, interpersonal skills, and more), and evidence that the limitations became apparent before the age of 18.

It is formally diagnosed by professional assessment of intelligence and adaptive behavior.
IQ below 70

The first English-language IQ test, the Terman-Binet, was adapted from an instrument used to measure potential to achieve developed by Binet in France. Terman translated the test and employed it as a means to measure intellectual capacity based on oral language, vocabulary, numerical reasoning, memory, motor speed and analysis skills. The mean score on the currently available IQ tests is 100, with a standard deviation of 15 (WAIS/WISC-IV) or 16 (Stanford-Binet). Sub-average intelligence is generally considered to be present when an individual scores two standard deviations below the test mean. Factors other than cognitive ability (depression, anxiety, etc.) can contribute to low IQ scores; it is important for the evaluator to rule them out prior to concluding that measured IQ is "significantly below average".

The following ranges, based on Standard Scores of intelligence tests, reflect the categories of the American Association of Mental Retardation, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR, and the International Classification of Diseases-10[citation needed]:
Class IQ
Profound mental retardation Below 20
Severe mental retardation 20–34
Moderate mental retardation 35–49
Mild mental retardation 50–69
Borderline intellectual functioning 70–84

Since the diagnosis is not based only on IQ scores, but must also take into consideration a person's adaptive functioning, the diagnosis is not made rigidly. It encompasses intellectual scores, adaptive functioning scores from an adaptive behavior rating scale based on descriptions of known abilities provided by someone familiar with the person, and also the observations of the assessment examiner who is able to find out directly from the person what he or she can understand, communicate, and the like.
Significant limitations in two or more areas of adaptive behavior

Adaptive behavior, or adaptive functioning, refers to the skills needed to live independently (or at the minimally acceptable level for age). To assess adaptive behavior, professionals compare the functional abilities of a child to those of other children of similar age. To measure adaptive behavior, professionals use structured interviews, with which they systematically elicit information about persons' functioning in the community from people who know them well. There are many adaptive behavior scales, and accurate assessment of the quality of someone's adaptive behavior requires clinical judgment as well. Certain skills are important to adaptive behavior, such as:

Daily living skills, such as getting dressed, using the bathroom, and feeding oneself
Communication skills, such as understanding what is said and being able to answer
Social skills with peers, family members, spouses, adults, and others

Evidence that the limitations became apparent in childhood

This third condition is used to distinguish mental retardation from dementing conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or due to traumatic injuries with attendant brain damage.

By most definitions mental retardation is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. MR can be distinguished in many ways from mental illness, such as schizophrenia or depression. Currently, there is no "cure" for an established disability, though with appropriate support and teaching, most individuals can learn to do many things.

There are thousands of agencies around the world that provide assistance for people with developmental disabilities. They include state-run, for-profit, and non-profit, privately run agencies. Within one agency there could be departments that include fully staffed residential homes, day rehabilitation programs that approximate schools, workshops wherein people with disabilities can obtain jobs, programs that assist people with developmental disabilities in obtaining jobs in the community, programs that provide support for people with developmental disabilities who have their own apartments, programs that assist them with raising their children, and many more. There are also many agencies and programs for parents of children with developmental disabilities.

Beyond that there are specific programs that people with developmental disabilities can take part in wherein they learn basic life skills. These "goals" may take a much longer amount of time for them to accomplish, but the ultimate goal is independence. This may be anything from independence in tooth brushing to an independent residence. People with developmental disabilities learn throughout their lives and can obtain many new skills even late in life with the help of their families, caregivers, clinicians and the people who coordinate the efforts of all of these people.

Although there is no specific medication for mental retardation, many people with developmental disabilities have further medical complications and may take several medications. For example autisic children with developmental delay may utilize anti-psychotics or mood stabilizers to help with behavior. Use of psychotropic medications such as benzodiazepines in people with mental retardation requires monitoring and vigilance as side effects occur commonly and are often misdiagnosed as behavioural and psychiatric problems.[13]

Mental retardation affects about 2–3% of people.[5] 75–90% of the affected people have mild retardation.[5]

Non-syndromic or idiopathic MR accounts for 30–50% of cases.[5] About a quarter of cases are caused by a genetic disorder.[5]
History of the condition

Intellectual disabilities of all kinds have been documented under a variety of names throughout history. Throughout much of human history, society was unkind to those with any type of disability, and people with intellectual disabilities were commonly viewed as burdens on their families.

Greek and Roman philosophers, who valued reasoning abilities, disparaged people with intellectual disabilities as barely human.[14] The oldest physiological view of mental retardation is in the writings of Hippocrates in the late fifth century BCE, who believed that it was caused by an imbalance in the four humors in the brain.

Until the Enlightenment in Europe, care and asylum was provided by families and the church (in monasteries and other religious communities), focusing on the provision of basic physical needs such as food, shelter and clothing. Negative stereotypes were prominent in social attitudes of the time.

In the 13th century, England declared people with intellectual disabilities to be incapable of making decisions or managing their affairs.[14] Guardianships were created to take over their financial affairs.

In the 17th century, Thomas Willis provided the first description of intellectual disabilities as a disease.[14] He believed that it was caused by structural problems in the brain. According to Willis, the anatomical problems could be either an inborn condition or acquired later in life.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, housing and care moved away from families and towards an asylum model. People were placed by, or removed from, their families (usually in infancy) and housed in large professional institutions, many of which were self-sufficient through the labor of the residents. Some of these institutions provided a very basic level of education (such as differentiation between colors and basic word recognition and numeracy), but most continued to focus solely on the provision of basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter. Conditions in such institutions varied widely, but the support provided was generally non-individualized, with aberrant behavior and low levels of economic productivity regarded as a burden to society. Heavy tranquilization and assembly line methods of support were the norm, and the medical model of disability prevailed. Services were provided based on the relative ease to the provider, not based on the needs of the individual.

In the late 19th century, in response to Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, Francis Galton proposed selective breeding of humans to reduce intellectual disabilities.[14] Early in the twentieth century the eugenics movement became popular throughout the world. This led to the forced sterilization and prohibition of marriage in most of the developed world and later used by Hitler as rationale for the mass murder of mentally challenged individuals during the holocaust. Eugenics was later abandoned as an evil violation of human rights, and the practice of forced sterilization and prohibition from marriage was discontinued by most of the developed world by the mid 20th century.

In 1905, Alfred Binet produced the first standardized test for measuring intelligence in children.[14]

Although ancient Roman law had declared people with mental retardation to be incapable of the deliberate intent to harm that was necessary for a person to commit a crime, during the 1920s, Western society believed they were morally degenerate.[14]

Ignoring the prevailing attitude, Civitans adopted service to the developmentally disabled as a major organizational emphasis in 1952. Their earliest efforts included workshops for special education teachers and daycamps for disabled children, all at a time when such training and programs were almost nonexistent.[15] The segregation of people with developmental disabilities wasn't widely questioned by academics or policy-makers until the 1969 publication of Wolf Wolfensberger's seminal work "The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models",[16] drawing on some of the ideas proposed by SG Howe 100 years earlier. This book posited that society characterizes people with disabilities as deviant, sub-human and burdens of charity, resulting in the adoption of that "deviant" role. Wolfensberger argued that this dehumanization, and the segregated institutions that result from it, ignored the potential productive contributions that all people can make to society. He pushed for a shift in policy and practice that recognized the human needs of "retardates" and provided the same basic human rights as for the rest of the population.

The publication of this book may be regarded as the first move towards the widespread adoption of the social model of disability in regard to these types of disabilities, and was the impetus for the development of government strategies for desegregation. Successful lawsuits against governments and an increasing awareness of human rights and self-advocacy also contributed to this process, resulting in the passing in the U.S. of the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act in 1980.

From the 1960s to the present, most states have moved towards the elimination of segregated institutions. Normalization and deinstitutionalization are dominant.[14] Along with the work of Wolfensberger and others including Gunnar and Rosemary Dybwad,[17] a number of scandalous revelations around the horrific conditions within state institutions created public outrage that led to change to a more community-based method of providing services.[18]

By the mid-1970s, most governments had committed to de-institutionalization, and had started preparing for the wholesale movement of people into the general community, in line with the principles of normalization. In most countries, this was essentially complete by the late 1990s, although the debate over whether or not to close institutions persists in some states, including Massachusetts.[19]

In the past, lead poisoning and infectious diseases were significant causes of intellectual disabilities. Some causes of mental retardation are decreasing, as medical advances, such as vaccination, increases. Other causes are increasing, perhaps due to rising maternal age, which is associated with several syndromic forms of mental retardation.

Along with the changes in terminology, and the downward drift in acceptability of the old terms, institutions of all kinds have had to repeatedly change their names. This affects the names of schools, hospitals, societies, government departments, and academic journals. For example, the Midlands Institute of Mental Subnormality became the British Institute of Mental Handicap and is now the British Institute of Learning Disability. This phenomenon is shared with mental health and motor disabilities, and seen to a lesser degree in sensory disabilities.[citation needed]
History of the terminology

Several traditional terms denoting varying degrees of mental deficiency long predate psychiatry. All terms have been subjected to the euphemism treadmill. In common usage, these terms are simple forms of abuse. They are often encountered in old documents such as books, academic papers, and census forms (for example, the British census of 1901 has a column heading including the terms imbecile and feeble-minded).

Negative connotations associated with these numerous terms for mental retardation reflect society's attitude about the condition. There are competing desires among elements of society, some of whom seek neutral medical terms, and others who want to use such terms as weapons with which to abuse people.

Today, the term retarded is slowly being replaced by new words like special or challenged. The term developmental delay is popular among caretakers and parents of individuals with mental retardation. Using the word delay is preferred over disability by many people, because delay suggests that a person is slowly reaching his or her full potential, rather than someone who has been disabled.[citation needed]

Usage has changed over the years, and differed from country to country, which needs to be borne in mind when looking at older books and papers. For example, mental retardation in some contexts covers the whole field, but previously applied to what is now the mild MR group. Feeble-minded used to mean mild MR in the UK, and once applied in the US to the whole field. "Borderline MR" is not currently defined, but the term may be used to apply to people with IQs in the 70s. People with IQs of 70 to 85 used to be eligible for special consideration in the US public education system on grounds of mental retardation.[citation needed]

Cretin is the oldest and comes from a dialectal French word for Christian.[20] The implication was that people with significant intellectual or developmental disabilities were "still human" (or "still Christian") and deserved to be treated with basic human dignity. Individuals with the condition were considered to be incapable of sinning, thus "christ-like" in their disposition. This term is not used in scientific endeavors since the middle of the 20th century and is generally considered a term of abuse. "Cretinism" is also used as an obsolescent term to refer to the condition of congenital hypothyroidism, in which there is some degree of mental retardation.
Amentia has a long history, mostly associated with dementia. The difference between amentia and dementia was originally defined by time of onset. Amentia was the term used to describe an individual who developed deficits in mental functioning early in life, while dementia described individuals who develop mental deficiencies as adults. During the 1890s, amentia was used to describe someone who was born with mental deficiencies. By 1912, ament was a classification lumping "idiots, imbeciles, and feeble minded" individuals in a category separate from a dement classification, in which the onset is later in life.
Idiot indicated the greatest degree of intellectual disability, where the mental age is two years or less, and the person cannot guard himself or herself against common physical dangers. The term was gradually replaced by the term profound mental retardation.
Imbecile indicated an intellectual disability less extreme than idiocy and not necessarily inherited. It is now usually subdivided into two categories, known as severe mental retardation and moderate mental retardation.
Moron was defined by the American Association for the Study of the Feeble-minded in 1910, following work by Henry H. Goddard, as the term for an adult with a mental age between eight and twelve; mild mental retardation is now the term for this condition. Alternative definitions of these terms based on IQ were also used. This group was known in UK law from 1911 to 1959/60 as feeble-minded.
Mongolism was a medical term used to identify someone with Down syndrome. The Mongolian People's Republic requested that the medical community cease use of the term as a description of mental retardation. Their request was granted in the 1960s, when the World Health Organization agreed that the term should cease being used within the medical community.
In the field of special education, educable (or "educable mentally retarded") refers to MR students with IQs of approximately 50–75 who can progress academically to a late elementary level. Trainable (or "trainable mentally retarded") refers to students whose IQs fall below 50 but who are still capable of learning personal hygiene and other living skills in a sheltered setting, such as a group home. In many areas, these terms have been replaced by use of "moderate" and "severe" mental retardation. While the names change, the meaning stays roughly the same in practice.
Retarded comes from the Latin retardare, "to make slow, delay, keep back, or hinder," so mental retardation means the same as mentally delayed. The term was recorded in 1426 as a "fact or action of making slower in movement or time." The first record of retarded in relation to being mentally slow was in 1895. The term retarded was used to replace terms like idiot, moron, and imbecile because retarded was not (then) a derogatory term. By the 1960s, however, the term had taken on a partially derogatory meaning as well. The noun retard is particularly seen as pejorative; as of 2010, the Special Olympics, Best Buddies and over 100 other organizations are striving to eliminate the use of the "r-word" (analogous to the "n-word") in everyday conversation.[21][22]

The term mental retardation is a diagnostic term denoting the group of disconnected categories of mental functioning such as idiot, imbecile, and moron derived from early IQ tests, which acquired pejorative connotations in popular discourse. The term mental retardation acquired pejorative and shameful connotations over the last few decades due to the use of the words retarded and retard as insults. This may have contributed to its replacement with euphemisms such as mentally challenged or intellectually disabled. While developmental disability includes many other disorders (see below), developmental disability and developmental delay (for people under the age of 18), are generally considered more polite terms than mental retardation.
United States

In North America mental retardation is subsumed into the broader term developmental disability, which also includes epilepsy, autism, cerebral palsy and other disorders that develop during the developmental period (birth to age 18). Because service provision is tied to the designation developmental disability, it is used by many parents, direct support professionals, and physicians. In the United States, however, in school-based settings, the more specific term mental retardation is still typically used, and is one of 13 categories of disability under which children may be identified for special education services under Public Law 108-446.
The phrase intellectual disability is increasingly being used as a synonym for people with significantly below-average cognitive ability. These terms are sometimes used as a means of separating general intellectual limitations from specific, limited deficits as well as indicating that it is not an emotional or psychological disability. Intellectual disability may also used to describe the outcome of traumatic brain injury or lead poisoning or dementing conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. It is not specific to congenital disorders such as Down syndrome.

The American Association on Mental Retardation continued to use the term mental retardation until 2006.[23] In June 2006 its members voted to change the name of the organization to the "American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities," rejecting the options to become the AAID or AADD. Part of the rationale for the double name was that many members worked with people with pervasive developmental disorders, most of whom do not have mental retardation.[24]
United Kingdom

In the UK, mental handicap had become the common medical term, replacing mental subnormality in Scotland and mental deficiency in England and Wales, until Stephen Dorrell, Secretary of State for Health for the United Kingdom from 1995–97, changed the NHS's designation to learning disability.[25] The new term is not yet widely understood, and is often taken to refer to problems affecting schoolwork (the American usage), which are known in the UK as "learning difficulties." British social workers may use "learning difficulty" to refer to both people with MR and those with conditions such as dyslexia.[26] In education, "learning difficulties" is applied to a wide range of conditions: "specific learning difficulty" may refer to dyslexia, dyscalculia or dyspraxia, while "moderate learning difficulties", "severe learning difficulties" and "profound learning difficulties" refer to more significant impairments.[27][28]

In England and Wales between 1983 and 2008 the Mental Health Act 1983 defined "mental impairment" and "severe mental impairment" as "a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind which includes significant/severe impairment of intelligence and social functioning and is associated with abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible conduct on the part of the person concerned."[29] As behavior was involved, these were not necessarily permanent conditions: they were defined for the purpose of authorizing detention in hospital or guardianship. The term mental impairment was removed from the Act in November 2008, but the grounds for detention remained. However, English statute law uses mental impairment elsewhere in a less well-defined manner—e.g. to allow exemption from taxes—implying that mental retardation without any behavioral problems is what is meant.

A BBC poll conducted in the United Kingdom came to the conclusion that 'retard' was the most offensive disability-related word.[30] On the reverse side of that, when a contestant on Celebrity Big Brother live used the phrase "walking like a retard", despite complaints from the public and the charity Mencap, the communications regulator Ofcom did not uphold the complaint saying "it was not used in an offensive context [...] and had been used light-heartedly". It was however noted that two previous similar complaints from other shows were upheld.[31]

The term mental retardation is still used in Australia; however, intellectual disability is now the preferred and more commonly used descriptor.[32][33]
Society and culture

People with such disabilities are often not seen as full citizens of society.[citation needed][by whom?] Person-centered planning and approaches are seen as methods of addressing the continued labelling and exclusion of socially devalued people, such as people with disabilities, encouraging a focus on the person as someone with capacities and gifts, as well as support needs. The self-advocacy movement promotes the right of self-determination and self-direction by people with intellectual disabilities, which means allowing people with intellectual disabilities to make decisions about their own lives.

Until the middle of the 20th century, people with intellectual disabilities were routinely excluded from public education, or educated away from other typically developing children. Compared to students with intellectual disabilities who were segregated in special schools, students with intellectual disabilities who are mainstreamed or included in regular classrooms report similar levels of stigma and social self-conception, but more ambitious plans for employment.[34]

As adults, people with intellectual disabilities may live independently, with family members, or in different types of institutions organized to support people with intellectual disabilities. About 8% of people with mental retardation live in an institution or group home.[35]

In the US, the average lifetime cost of mental retardation amounts to $1,014,000 per person with mental retardation, in 2003 US dollars.[35] This is slightly more than the costs associated with cerebral palsy, and double that associated with serious vision or hearing impairments. Of that $1,014,000, about 14% is due to increased medical expenses (not including what is normally incurred by a person with mental retardation), 10% is due to direct non-medical expenses, such as the excess cost of special education compared to standard schooling, and 76% is indirect costs accounting for reduced productivity and shortened lifespans. Some expenses, such as costs associated with being a family caregiver or living in a group home, were excluded from this calculation.[35]

Abusive terms for intellectual deficits are common insults, and are most commonly applied to non-disabled people. For example, in the 1964 movie Becket, King Henry II calls his son and heir a "cretin." Mental health professionals discourage use of these terms. The abbreviation retard or tard is still used as a generic insult. A BBC survey in 2003 ranked retard as the most offensive disability-related word, ahead of terms such as spastic (not considered offensive in America[36]) and mong.[37] A campaign led by people with intellectual disabilities and the Special Olympics to eliminate the "R word" has resulted in federal legislation to replace the term mentally retarded with the term intellectual disability in some federal statutes.[38]
See also

Secondary handicap


^ "The relevance of IQ scores". Retrieved 2010-12-14.
^ Cummings, Nicholas A.; Rogers H. Wright (2005). "Chapter 1, Psychology's surrender to political correctness". Destructive trends in mental health: the well-intentioned path to harm. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-95086-4.
^ Lawyer, Liz (2010-11-26). "Rosa's Law to remove stigmatized language from law books". Ithaca, New York: The Ithaca Journal. Retrieved 2010-12-04. "The resolution ... urges a change from the old term to "developmental disability""
^ John Cook (05 July 2001). "The "R" Word". Slate Magazine.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Daily DK, Ardinger HH, Holmes GE (February 2000). "Identification and evaluation of mental retardation". Am Fam Physician 61 (4): 1059–67, 1070. PMID 10706158.
^ Badano, Jose L.; Norimasa Mitsuma, Phil L. Beales, Nicholas Katsanis (September 2006). "The Ciliopathies : An Emerging Class of Human Genetic Disorders". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 7: 125–148. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.7.080505.115610. PMID 16722803. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
^ Siderius LE, Hamel BC, van Bokhoven H, et al. (2000). "X-linked mental retardation associated with cleft lip/palate maps to Xp11.3-q21.3". Am. J. Med. Genet. 85 (3): 216–220. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19990730)85:33.0.CO;2-X. PMID 10398231.
^ Laumonnier F, Holbert S, Ronce N, et al. (2005). "Mutations in PHF8 are associated with X linked mental retardation and cleft lip/cleft palate". J. Med. Genet. 42 (10): 780–786. doi:10.1136/jmg.2004.029439. PMC 1735927. PMID 16199551.
^ McNeil, Donald G., Jr. (2006-12-16). "In Raising the World's I.Q., the Secret's in the Salt". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
^ Wines, Michael (2006-12-28). "Malnutrition Is Cheating Its Survivors, and Africa's Future". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
^ Sundaram SK, Sivaswamy L, Makki MI, Behen ME, Chugani HT. (2008). "Absence of arcuate fasciculus in children with global developmental delay of unknown etiology: a diffusion tensor imaging study". J Pediatr 152 (2): 250–5. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.06.037. PMID 18206698.
^ "eMedicine — Mental Retardation : Article by C Simon Sebastian, MD". Retrieved 2007-08-23.
^ Kalachnik, JE.; Hanzel, TE.; Sevenich, R.; Harder, SR. (Sep 2002). "Benzodiazepine behavioral side effects: review and implications for individuals with mental retardation". Am J Ment Retard 107 (5): 376–410. doi:10.1352/0895-8017(2002)1072.0.CO;2. ISSN 0895-8017. PMID 12186578.
^ a b c d e f g Wickham, Parnell. Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood in History and Society. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
^ Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. pp. 74–75.
^ Wolf Wolfensberger (January 10, 1969). "The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models". Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded. President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, D.C..
^ "The ARC Highlights — Beyond Affliction: Beyond Affliction Document". Retrieved 2010-06-29.
^ "Christmas in Purgatory & Willowbrook". Retrieved 2010-06-29.
^ "Fernald School Closing and RICCI Class". Retrieved 2010-06-29.
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^ "". Retrieved 2010-06-29.
^ "". 2010-06-18. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
^ "FAQ on Intellectual Disability". AAIDD. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
^ Chakrabarti S, Fombonne E (2001). "Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children". JAMA 285 (24): 3093–9. doi:10.1001/jama.285.24.3093. PMID 11427137.
^ "mencap". Retrieved 2010-12-07. Website of the UK's leading learning disability charity, which uses that term throughout.
^ "Disability and Ill Health – Learning disabilities". Social Work, Alcohol and Drugs. Retrieved 2010-12-08.
^ "Special Educational Needs and Disability: A. Cognition and Learning Needs". teachernet. Retrieved 2010-12-08.
^ Vickerman, Philip (2009-07-08). "Severe Learning Difficulties". Teacher Training Resource Bank. Retrieved 2010-12-08. Extensive further references.
^ "Draft Illustrative Code of Practice". Retrieved 2007-08-23.
^ Rohrer, Finlo (2008-09-22). "UK | Magazine | The path from cinema to playground". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
^ Beckford, Martin (2010-03-11). "Ofcom says TV channels have 'human right' to broadcast offensive material". Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
^ Kidspot Australia / Get Started Australia. "Mental Retardation — Mentally Retarded — Kidspot Australia". Retrieved 2010-06-29.
^ "Australian Psychological Society : Psychologists and intellectual disability". Retrieved 2010-06-29.
^ Cooney G, Jahoda A, Gumley A, Knott F (June 2006). "Young people with intellectual disabilities attending mainstream and segregated schooling: perceived stigma, social comparison and future aspirations". J Intellect Disabil Res 50 (Pt 6): 432–44. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00789.x. PMID 16672037.
^ a b c Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (January 2004). "Economic costs associated with mental retardation, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, and vision impairment--United States, 2003". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53 (3): 57–9. PMID 14749614.
^ Spastic, learning disability. Murphy, M. Lynne. 2007-02-28. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
^ "Worst Word Vote". Ouch. BBC. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
^ "Spread the word to end the word" website of the Special Olympics. The legislation was Pub.L. 111-256, sometimes known as "Rosa's Law".

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