Entries tagged with: Chromatics
by Bill Pearis
Chromatics have released another song off their new album, Dear Tommy, which is due out sometime this year. That's the cover art above. "I Can Never Be Myself When You're Around" features backing vocals from Megan Louise from Desire and is much more of a dancefloor-filler than the atmospheric "Just Like You." You can stream or download it below.
You can also listen to a track from the soundtrack to Ryan Gosling's Lost River which is by Johnny Jewel of Chromatics. Stream "Bullytown" below as well.
photo: Chromatics @ MHOW, 2012 (more by Amanda Hatfield)
In addition to the soundtrack to Ryan Gosling's directorial debut, Lost River, Johnny Jewel also has a new Chromatics album on the way, titled Dear Tommy, that will be out in March. Jewel just posted the first song from it, the unsurprisingly atmospheric "Just Like You," on his Soundcloud with the following note:
I'M SO HAPPY TO SHARE THE FIRST SINGLE OFF OF "DEAR TOMMY" TODAY. GOING TO BE RELEASING A SINGLE A WEEK UNTIL THE ALBUM COMES OUT IN MARCH. I FUCKING LOVE THIS RECORD SO MUCH & I AM LITERALLY FOAMING AT THE MOUTH TO SHARE IT WITH YOU. YOU CAN DOWNLOAD "JUST LIKE YOU" ON MY SOUNDCLOUD. THE SINGLE & THE INSTRUMENTAL ARE UP ON ITUNES, & COMING ON SPOTIFY ANY MOMENT NOW.Email Johnny if you want a poster, and stream "Just Like You" below...
TO GET YOUR "JUST LIKE YOU" GIANT CINEMA POSTER...
EMAIL THIS MESSAGE..."DEAR TOMMY, HE LOOKS JUST LIKE YOU" & YOUR MAILING ADDRESS TO:
WE'LL MAIL YOU ONE ANYWHERE IN THE GALAXY.
COMMENT ON HERE WITH QUESTIONS ABOUT "DEAR TOMMY" & "LOST RIVER"...I'M FEELING CHATTY & I'LL TRY TO ANSWER YOU AS FAST AS POSSIBLE OVER THE NEXT FEW DAYS. REPRESSINGS ON SHIRTS & VINYL COMING IN NEXT WEEK...
by Bill Pearis
Paul Dano as Brian Wilson in 'Love & Mercy'
The music lineup has been gradually rolling out for SXSW 2015, and now the film festival has announced its features lineup. It includes a few notable music-related titles: unconventional Brian Wilson biopic Love & Mercy which stars Paul Dano and John Cusack as the Beach Boys leader at different ages and Paul Giamatti as Wilson's psychiatrist/manager Dr. Eugene Landy; Breaking a Monster, the documentary about NYC tweenage metal band Unlocking the Truth (who just played T5 with Marilyn Manson); 808, a documentary about the famed Roland drum machine; All Things Must Pass, Colin Hanks' documentary about Tower Records; Nirvana doc Kurt Cobain: Montage of Heck; and Julien Temple's The Ecstasy of Wilko Johnson about the legendary Dr. Feelgood guitarist and cancer survivor.
There's also: Knock Knock, It's Tig Notaro which follows the comedian on tour playing fans houses and other unconventional spots; Russell Brand documentary BRAND: A Second Coming from DiG! director Ondi Timoner; a "work-in-progress" screening of Judd Apatow's Trainwreck, written and starring Amy Schumer (and mainly filmed in Williamsburg last summer); and Ryan Gosling's supposedly very weird directorial debut, Lost River, which features a score by Chromatics's Johnny Jewel (stream a track below).
Film Festival badges are on sale now. Full list of 2015 SXSW films, below....
PC Music's Hannah Diamond
Gorilla vs Bear posted their lists of their favorite albums (35) and songs (100) of 2014. Though the albums list does have some of the stuff you always see (like The War On Drugs), it's mostly got a lot of unique choices like Recycle Culture, Korallreven, Yumi Zouma, Beverly, Panda Bear's EP and more, and the #1 is pretty unique too. FKA twigs doesn't crack the albums list but she's on the tracks list twice, along with tracks by Tinashe, iLoveMakonnen, Jessica Pratt, Grouper, a Recyle Culture remix of Taylor Swift, and plenty of PC Music representation.
Check out his full lists below...
by Andrew Sacher
Yesterday, Pitchfork posted their top 200 tracks of the decade so far, and today they've listed the top 100 albums to have come out between 2010-2014. There's some surprises on there. For example, I didn't expect to see Bon Iver's self-titled, their #1 album of 2011 and with a score of 9.5, rank as low as #27 on this list. I was also surprised to see Chief Keef make it but not, say, Shabazz Palaces or Schoolboy Q. And there's a few other glaring omissions: nothing by The National? Grizzly Bear? One thing that will surprise no one though, is their #1 pick.
You can check out the full list below...
photos by Tim Griffin
Slayer/Glass Candy/Polyphonic Spree/Slayer surfer @ FFF Fest 2013
Closing Fun Fun Fun Fest, Slayer treated Austin to greatest hits and then some: "Raining Blood," "South of Heaven," "Dead Skin Mask," "Seasons in the Abyss," etc. They also dug out the aforementioned "Die by the Sword," a high point off their 1983 debut LP, Show No Mercy.The eighth Fun Fun Fun Fest happened last weekend (11/8 - 11/10) at Austin's Auditorium Shores, hosting three days of music and fun (fun fun), with such acts as MIA, Deerhunter, Slayer, Television, Thee Oh Sees, Kurt Vile, Cut Copy. Johnny Marr, The Walkmen, Jurassic 5, Killer Mike and loads more. Many of them played again as part of the FFF Nites shows, including shows presented by BrooklynVegan and Invisible Oranges.
After fooling no one with a false ending of "South of Heaven," the third backdrop of the night unfurled at the back of the stage: a parody of the Heineken logo reading "Hanneman" and bearing his life dates. The top read "Angel of Death." Reign in Blood's terrifying opening track - and closing number on Auditorium Shores - now serves as an epitaph for Slayer's fallen co-founder. - [Austin Chronicle]
We were there in the thick of it and, as mentioned above, you can check out pics from Day 1 HERE and HERE, pics from Day 2 pics HERE and HERE; and pics from Day 3 are HERE and HERE. See you again in 2014 Austin.
photos by Paige K. Parsons
Chromatics / Chic / The National w/ Bob Weir @ Outside Lands 8/9/2013
Frontman Matt Berninger strolled into the spotlight in a three-piece suit, sipping what appeared to be a glass of Sauvignon Blanc from any one of the festival's Wine Lands vendors. The band then launched into one of the best sets of the day, breaking into "Fake Empire" within the first three songs and interspersing their typically melancholy lyrical matter with a fun, humorous stage presence (Berninger made sure to note that his daughter's pre-school teacher was in the crowd, putting himself in strong position for the "Best Dad on Stage" award this weekend). And to cap it all off, Bob Weir of the Grateful Dead popped up on stage, grabbing a guitar and singing along to the bands' last number.The 2013 Outside Lands Festival happened last weekend across seven stages at San Francisco's sprawling Golden Gate Park. The fest kicked off Friday (8/9) and included headliner Paul McCartney, plus sets from Chromatics, The National, Chic (subbing for an ailing D'Angelo), Jessie Ware, Rhye, The Men, Smith Westerns and more. Pictures from their sets are in this post.
[Santa Barbara Independent]
Like at Lollapalooza and Firefly, and like we'll be doing again at Bumbershoot, BrooklynVegan was set up each day of Outside Lands in the Soundwave tent where our hosts Christen Thomas and Dave Hill DJ'd, told jokes and interviewed and hosted bands that were playing the fest.
Pics from Outside Lands Day 2 are HERE. More pictures from day one below...
Outside Lands 2012 (more by Amoreena Lucero)
Lollapalooza and Osheaga are behind us, but the summer festivals keep rolling on with San Francisco's Outside Lands this weekend (8/9-8/11). The festival is sold out, but if you've already got tickets and are going, you might like to know how to get there, and once you're there, the festival map will help you find your way around inside.
Meanwhile, if you're not going to Outside Lands, but still want to watch the fun go down, you can stream it live on Purevolume. Artists whose sets will stream live include Jessie Ware, The National, Band of Horses, Yeasayer, and more on Friday; Nine Inch Nails, Grizzly Bear, Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Phoenix, The Tallest Man on Earth, Baauer, Gary Clark Jr and more on Saturday; and Vampire Weekend, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Dawes, Kurt Vile, Foals, Rudimental, Camper Van Beethoven and more on Sunday.
The full Outside Lands schedule can be found at their site. Full streaming schedule below...
Fun Fun Fun Fest 2012 (more by Keith Marlowe)
As discussed, Fun Fun Fun Fest is returning to Austin's Auditorium Shores from November 8-10, and now the full lineup was finally announced. It includes Television, Slayer (again!), Quicksand, Descendents, The Dismemberment Plan, Body Count, Jurassic 5, MIA, MGMT, Death Grips, Kurt Vile, Cloud Nothings, Snoop Dogg/Lion, The Locust, Subhumans (performing Cradle to the Grave), The Men, Title Fight, White Lung, Retox, Chromatics, XXYYXX, Mykki Blanco, Cut Copy, Washed Out, Merchandise, Lemuria, and many more.
Tickets for the festival go on sale today (7/10) at 10 AM CST.
Full lineup and flyer below...
Chromatics at MHOW in July (more by Amanda Hatfield)
Portland Italo-disco lovers Chromatics have a few summer festival dates lined up, like MusicFestNW in their hometown in September. Shortly after their MFNW appearance, they'll head to NYC with Chromatics member Johnny Jewel's other band Glass Candy for a show at Terminal 5 on September 13. Tickets for that show go on AmEx presale on Wednesday (6/26) at noon with the regular on-sale starting Friday (6/28) at noon.
The band's most recent LP is 2012's Kill for Love. All tour dates are listed, along with a video of that LP's title track, below...
Portland festival MusicFestNW is returning this year to multiple Portland venues from September 3-8 with a ton of bands including Animal Collective, Godspeed You! Black Emperor, Superchunk, Deerhunter, Charles Bradley, Shuggie Otis, Joey Bada$$, Bonnie Prince Billy, Chromatics, Glass Candy, Flume, Youth Lagoon, Washed Out, The Thermals, TItus Andronicus, Bob Mould, Baroness, Austra, Ty Segall, The Bronx, The Men, Mount Eerie, White Lung, and many more. Ticket info is coming soon.
Initial lineup below...
As mentioned, Moogfest is taking 2013 off and will return in Spring 2014 in Asheville, NC. There will be, however, another festival in Asheville filling its old fall time period this year: Mountain Oasis Electronic Music Summit which will happen from October 25 - 27. (It's also run by AC Entertainment who were, until recently, the producers of Moogfest.) The initial inaugural line-up has just been announced and it's pretty impressive: Nine Inch Nails AND How to destroy angels_, the newly-reformed Neutral Milk Hotel (their first show back, and an evening that includes opening sets from Daniel Johnston and Half Japanese), Godspeed You! Black Emperor, Animal Collective, Disclosure, Bosnian Rainbows, Bassnectar, Pretty Lights, Gary Numan, Chromatics, Rustie, Jessie Ware, Zola Jesus & JG Thirlwell, Tricky, Jacques Greene, and The Bug.
Weekend passes to the fest go on sale Thursday, May 2 at noon EDT. Flyer below...
Outside Lands Fest 2012 (more byAmoreena Lucero)
The 2013 edition of San Francisco's Outside Lands Music & Arts Festival with happen at Golden Gate Park on August 9 - 11. This year's line-up includes Paul McCartney, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Nine Inch Nails, Phoenix, Vampire Weekend, Yeah Yeah Yeahs, D'Angelo, Willie Nelson, Grizzly Bear, Band of Horses, Hall & Oates, Foals, A-Track, Jurassic 5, Kurt Vile and many more. Tickets go on sale Thursday (4/18) at noon PDT.
This is the sixth edition of Outside Lands, and the full announced line-up is below.
Small Black at Brooklyn Museum in June (more by Jessica Amaya)
Today we've posted year-end lists by Andy from Cake Shop, Mark Eitzel, and James from Veronica Falls. Now we've got one from Josh Kolenik of Brooklyn chillwavers Small Black giving us a rundown of 12 singles he loved in 2012.
Based on Small Black's own sound, it's got an unsurprising amount of indie pop, R&B, electronics, and Young Chop-produced hip hop. But he also sneaks in the inclusion of some vintage-sounding psych folk courtesy of Jessica Pratt. Check out his full list of songs, along with streams and/or videos for each track, below...
by Andrew Sacher
Today, we finally get the much anticipated list of Pitchfork's Top 20 Albums of 2012. They revealed Nos. 30-50 yesterday and spent the rest of this week posting Honorable Mentions and tracks. None of the albums that made the top 20 are surprising to see there (which doesn't mean they aren't deserving), but the surprises come from the albums that missed the list all together. Passion Pit got ROBBED! Twin Shadow too! And Wild Nothing! If you're looking for Converge or Baroness, you'll have to redirect yourself to Pitchfork's Metal list (though Pallbearer was in the main top 50). And we could've guessed that Nos. 1 and 2 would be Frank Ocean and Kendrick Lamar... but who took the No. 1 spot? Head below to find out and you can check out individual writer's votes too...
by Bill Pearis
Pitchfork just posted their much anticipated list of the top 100 tracks of 2012. The #1 slot went to... Grimes! Whether you thought the whole of her album Visions was good or not, it was hard to deny the charms of "Oblivion." (Having that great video didn't hurt either.) Do you think it deserved to top the list? If not then what song should've?
You can check out P4K's entire hot 100 of 2012 below.
!!! at Sasquatch 2011 (more by Josh Darr)
As previously discussed, !!! will be in town for a show at Music Hall of Williamsburg on Thursday (12/13) with Sinkane (who will open for Solange next week) and Yellow Dogs. Tickets for the show are still available and we're also giving away a pair. Details on how to enter to win are below.
Meanwhile, !!! frontman Nic Offer recently spoke to us about his favorite albums and songs of the year. Like Nic's own music, the list skews mainly electronic and electronic-tinged pop, and he makes room for a few other interesting inclusions too. Nic is also now the second artist we've spoke to to include the various artists compilation, Personal Space: Electronic Soul 1974-1984. You can check out the whole list below.
Frank Ocean at Angel Orensanz, Sept 2012 (more by Fred Pessaro // BBG)
BBC Music has announced their Top 25 records of 2012. Like lists from MOJO, Q, and Uncut, it's got familiar names like Frank Ocean, Baroness, Swans and Grizzly Bear... but if you're expecting a UK indie act to top their list, you might be surprised at the Beeb's #1 choice. Check out the entire list below.
From December 6 through 9, Miami Beach, Florida, will host the 11th edition of Art Basel, the most prestigious art show in the Americas. More than 260 leading galleries from North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa will take part, showcasing works by more than 2,000 artists of the 20th and 21st centuries.In addition to the official events of Art Basel in Miami, there are loads of parties going on throughout the city, including a Kurt Cobain tribute at Gusman Center for the Performing Arts on December 6 that includes an appearance by Sonic Youth's Thurston Moore and a 15 minute live dance performance based on the "Smells Like Teen Spirit" video. More info is here.
The exhibiting galleries are among the world's most respected art dealers, offering exceptional pieces by both renowned artists and cutting-edge newcomers. Special exhibition sections feature young galleries, performance art, public art projects and video art. The show will be a vital source for art lovers, allowing them to both discover new developments in contemporary art and experience rare museum-caliber artworks.
Other music artists playing shows during or around Art Basel include Chromatics, Prince Rama, Nicolas Jaar, Purity Ring, Twin Shadow, Brenmar, Animal Collective, Flying Lotus, Dan Deacon, Hundred Waters, ITAL and Jacuzzi Boys. Paper Mag has a pretty good guide to some of it.
If you're going to Miami, we'd like to point out that BrooklynVegan photographer Dana (distortion) Yavin will be showing more than 26 prints of her mostly-BrooklynVegan concert photography (including Morrissey, Iggy Pop, Pearl Jam, Fiona Apple, Snoop Dogg, Madonna and more) in two different galleries, LMNT and OVERTURE, from December 4 - 9. A flyer for the show below has more details.
Chromatics at MHoW, July 2012 (more by Amanda Hatfield)
Since the album came out, a lot of people on the road have been telling us they are curious to hear some of the unreleased music from the Kill For Love sessions...Recorded November 2009 through December 2011, these songs were all mixed between 4 & 6 a.m. After hours of tracking at the studio in Montreal, we'd clear the channels on the mixer, open a bottle of wine, & feel around in the dark...working our way through the atmospheric elements & peeling back layers of rhythm...throwing the songs into the abstract pile & playing them while driving home in the snow...The above update was posted with a new "album" by Chromatics titled Running from The Sun, which was culled from the Kill for Love sessions. Stream/download that in full below, where you'll also find the lyrics and the tracklisting.
Desire, a band that contains two members of Chromatics, have released a new video for "Tears from Heaven" from the the forthcoming Italians Do It Better comp After Dark 2 (release date TBD). Check out that video below, along with the tracklisting. Chromatics, Glass Candy (who are on the lineup of the upcoming UR1 Festival), Farah and many others also contribute to the comp.
Altar of Plagues at The Studio at Webster Hall, 2010 (*more by Samantha Marble)
today in NYC
* Cold Fronts @ Cameo
* DANCENOW @ Joe's Pub
* Michael McNeill @ Barbes
* John and Scott @ UCB
* Zoogma, D.V.S @ Brooklyn Bowl
* The Mandingo Ambassadors @ Barbes
* The Big Terrific Comedy Show @ Cameo
* Rachel Yamagata @ Rockwood Music Hall
* Heaven, Rumors, Manatees, Leila Adu @ Pianos
* Sondre Lerche, Fancy Colors @ Bowery Ballroom
* TEEN, Acrylics, Bizi Gara, Fabric @ Glasslands
* The John Cage Variety Show Big Band @ The Stone
* Bridget Everett & The Tender Moments @ Joe's Pub
* Chromatics, Oneohtrix Point Never (DJ) @ New Museum
* Altar Of Plagues, Atlas Moth, Sannhet @ Saint Vitus
* Manatees, Call Of The Wild, Behavior @ Death By Audio
* The Rapture, JD Samson & MEN @ Music Hall of Williamsburg
* Hilly Eye, Big Ups, Black Wine, The Midgetman @ Shea Stadium
* Colleen Green, Team Spirit, Plateaus, The Sanctuaries @ Mercury Lounge
* Cellular Chaos, Martin Bisi, Arc in Round, Invisible Things @ Cake Shop
Tonight marks the second night of a three day tribute to composer John Cage at The Stone on what would have been his 100th birthday! Look for the "John Cage Big Band" featuring Miguel Frasconi, Daniel Goode, Kathleen Supové, Chris McIntyre, Cristian Amigo, Richard Carrick, David Watson, Guy Barash and more.
The Rapture begins its three-night residency with JD Samson & MEN at Music Hall of Williamsburg tonight (9/5). All three shows are sold out.
Azealia Banks is playing a private Fashion Week party at the Wythe Hotel tonight with Hunters, but she'll play a free, open-to-the-public show tomorrow at M.A.C. Soho as part of Fashion's Night Out.
Follow BrooklynVegan on Instagram.
The Vaselines were joined by Krist Novoselic at Bumbershoot in Seattle over Labor Day Weekend, where they joined together for "Jesus Don't Want Me For A Sunbeam." The song was originally recorded by the band and then later covered for Nirvana's MTV Unplugged LP.
As Rolling Stone points out, "Grandaddy frontman Jason Lytle is gearing up for the October 16th release of Dept. of Disappearance, his first solo record since 2009's Yours Truly, the Commuter. Now you can check out the video for album cut "Your Final Setting Sun," which Lytle describes as "a kind of fast-paced Western synth rock song."" Video is below.
Neurosis have released a new trailer for Honor Found In Decay. Check that out below.
Baroness at Terminal 5 in May (more by Joe McCabe)
Earlier this week, we posted an update from Baroness showing that things were looking upwards for the band. Unfortunately though, with two members having broken vertebrae and frontman John Baizely having a broken arm and leg, it doesn't come as much of a surprise that Baroness have in fact cancelled some of their upcoming North American tour dates, including their NYC show at House of Vans and LA's FYF Fest. They will not be replaced on the House of Vans lineup, which happens on August 29 and now just includes Turbonegro, Doomriders, and Nightbirds. This is a bummer but it makes sense that the band takes the time they need to recover, and we wish them a speedy and successful recovery!
Meanwhile, FYF Fest, which Wild Flag also dropped off of, recently expanded its lineup. It now features The Faint (who just announced they'll be reissuing Danse Macabre and touring the album), Glass Candy, King Tuff, and newcomers The Orwells. Tickets for FYF Fest are still available. The updated lineup and flier are below.
Chromatics at MHOW in July (more by Amanda Hatfield)
We're pleased to announce that we're throwing an event with Kill Screen for Soundplay, our interactive music-inspired video game series. In conjunction with Intel, Pitchfork has commissioned some of the most innovative game developers to create new, original games inspired by songs we love. On September 5, the New Museum in New York City will host Game Jam, where attendees can experience new Soundplay games developed by teams during the previous 48 hours using tracks from Passion Pit's new record Gossamer. [Pitchfork]As mentioned in the quote above, Pitchfork will be holding an event for their Soundplay program in NYC on September 5 at the New Museum. IN addition to the 'Game Jam,' there will be a live performance form Chromatics (who inspired one of the Soundplay games) and a DJ set by Oneohtrix Point Never with visuals by Nate Boyce. Entrance is free, but RSVP (details TBA) is required.
Oneohtrix Point Never will play NYC even sooner at the 'Yo Eskerikk Asko NYC!' festival, which goes down this weekend at Public Assembly from August 24 - 25 with Glenn Branca, Tim Hecker, Colin L. Orchestra, White Suns, and more.
A list of all Chromatics and Oneohtrix Point Never dates and the flier for the New Museum event are below.
by Bill Pearis
Hot Chip at Prospect Park, 7/1/2012 (more by Toby Tennenbaum)
Hot Chip, who finished up their tour last night (7/22) in MD with Sleigh Bells, played Terminal 5 on Friday night (7/20), their second NYC show of the week following a slightly-damp show at Prospect Park two days before. And while the crowd was tamer than I've seen at previous Hot Chip shows (I think this was my 10th time seeing them?) it was certainly not the fault of the band who have honed the electronic band live experience to a science. With a blinding stroboscoopic light show and two auxiliary members beefing up their sound, they seemed not just ready for the floor but ready for arenas.
One of my favorite things about seeing Hot Chip live is that they are never afraid to mess with their best-loved tracks. "Over and Over" and "And I was a Boy from School" both got massively reworked, the latter now driven by electric piano that gave the song an early-'90s balaeric kick. I could of used a few more oldies, as we got nothing from Coming on Strong and just those two songs from The Warning, plus two each from Made in the Dark ("Hold On," and "Ready for the Floor" which was clearly the crowd's favorite) and three from One Life Stand ("I Feel Better," "Hand Me Down Your Love" and the title track).
We got most of the new album In Our Heads (though not my favorite song "These Chains"), which the crowd didn't seem to know very well. For the encore, Alexis Taylor invited out Lizzie from Gang Gang Dance (who opened for Hot Chip at Prospect Park) to sing on ballad "I Have Always Been Your Love." The show finished with "Let Me Be Him" which veers into M83 territory, what with the "whoah oh oh" chorus and a bombastic finish that was especially arena-ready.
Wed don't have pictures from Terminal 5 but you can look at shots from from Prospect Park and Pitchfork too. Watch their appearance last week on Fallon if you missed it, and catch Hot Chip this December on on one of the Coachella Cruises. Chromatics opened the Terminal 5 show and also played Sunday (7/22) at Music Hall of Williamsburg which you can see pics of here.
Setlist for Friday's Terminal 5 show is below.
photos by Amanda Hatfield; words by Bill Pearis
Chromatics @ Music Hall of Williamsburg
Chromatics were in town this past weekend, opening for Hot Chip on Friday (7/20) and playing a headlining show at Music Hall of Williamsburg on Sunday (7/22). I caught their T5 set -- my first time seeing the group -- and they were more engaging than I thought they were going to be, with a live drummer keeping things banging. I like their new album just fine but to this point, though, Chromatics don't so much make music to dance to as music to melancholically bob your head to. Kill for Love's "Lady" and the Survivor-esque "These Streets Will Never Look the Same" came closest to getting the crowd moving. Pictures from the Brooklyn show are in this post.
Chromatics recently played the Pitchfork Festival too (which we have pictures of). More pictures from the MHOW show, a FIXED production (that was originally supposed to happen at Dekalb Market) where the band shared a bill with DJs JDH, Dave P and Paul Raffaele, below.